The observed level of global circulation is more than 25 times larger than the Weber–Davis model, which predicts flows of about 2 km s−1 at PSP distances from the Sun for an Alfvén point at 10 solar radii, implying much higher rates of angular momentum loss by the solar wind and resulting spindown of solar rotation. The transverse flow had roughly the same dependence on distance for the inbound and outbound phases of the first two encounters, even though the solar wind source was different for each phase and the speed of the wind varied by more than a factor of three from nearly 200 km s−1 to over 600 km s−1. These cross-correlation results are dominated by larger and deeper cells at longer time lags. Home delivery customers will have access at no additional cost to their print subscription. 2020). 2020). Since the durations of the switchback follow power-law distributions, it is difficult to assess the mean properties of a switchback, but each 100 s switchback with a 10 km s−1 jump in the transverse flow of the solar wind can be thought of as transporting a field line approximately 10,000 km transverse to the radial, and should yield average transverse speeds consistent with observations. The Sun Journal is a member of the North Carolina Press Association. SUBSCRIBE NOW. Instead, the large transverse flows observed by PSP are a result of transverse flows in the corona. : Originating Research Org. Contact us by phone for assistance. Lockport Carol J. Peters passed away December 27, 2020 in Buffalo General Medical Center. : USDOE Mean transverse proton flow VpT with latitude. Go to page containing this article. The award-winning Maine news organization covering Androscoggin, Oxford and Franklin counties. Transl.) shorter lifetimes and do not contribute to the correlated signal at longer time lags.) $3 for 3 months. Hathaway, David H., E-mail: My Subscription Enjoy the convenience of managing your account online. We construct a simple analytical magnetohydrodynamic model of the solar interior and identify, Recent analysis revealed that supergranules (convection cells seen at the Sun's surface) are advected by the zonal flows at depths equal to the widths of the cells themselves. Next article > Next issue >> SIBLEY JOURNAL TO BOOST CIRCULATION. News Sports Entertainment Lifestyle Opinion Nation / World Obituaries E-Edition Legals. {sup 0}075 with respect to the Sun's rotation axis. Number 1 We propose a method for selecting parameter values in future numerical models. The mission of the AAS is to enhance and share humanity's scientific understanding of the universe. element pattern has moved, thus providing meridional flow and differential rotation velocities for each rotation of the Sun. Although it has long been recognized that the meridional flow is predominantly poleward at the Sun's surface and in its shallow interior, the location of the equatorward return flow and the meridional flow profile in the deeper interior remain unclear. The open flux is thus dragged through overlying large coronal loops present at lower latitudes during solar minimum, reconnects, in a process usually referred to as interchange reconnection, and is displaced. 2020). Though its history dates back to 1847, the Sun … The larger switchback events have a statistically significant clustering of the orientations of their magnetic field deflections away from the quiet radially inward direction (Horbury et al. Read latest breaking news, updates, and headlines. 2018), the events discovered by PSP exhibit an important new set of characteristics. Launch ePaper. Moreover, the large observed transverse flows are part of a closed global circulation pattern, and within a closed system, angular momentum is conserved., THE SUN'S MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION AND INTERIOR MAGNETIC FIELD,, SUPERGRANULES AS PROBES OF THE SUN'S MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION,, MEASUREMENTS OF THE SUN'S HIGH-LATITUDE MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION,, DETECTION OF EQUATORWARD MERIDIONAL FLOW AND EVIDENCE OF DOUBLE-CELL MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION INSIDE THE SUN, These observations were a surprise. Under these circumstances, open magnetic flux can be eliminated only if two oppositely directed open magnetic field lines reconnect at the current sheet, inside the Alfvén point, thereby forming two U'-shaped loops, one that remains attached to the Sun, and the other that is carried outward with the solar wind, eliminating open flux from the heliosphere. 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